Depression: Types, Symptoms, Causes & Solutions

Depression is more than just temporarily feeling sad and blue. Depression is a mental health condition that affects a significant percentage of the population.

What Is Depression?

Depression a mood disorder classified in The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V (DSM-V). Along with anxiety disorder, it is one of the most prevalent mental health issues affecting a significant percentage of our population. About 16.1 million people in the US alone have had at least one major depressive episode. During a two week study, 8.1% of adults over 20 years old experienced some form of depression according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Statistics did not include people who did not seek help or those at the risk of having depression but did not quite meet the diagnostic criteria. (1, 2)

This mood disorder can take many forms and symptoms can differ from person to person. No two people’s experiences are exactly the same, but most people experience sadness, a lack of energy, feeling weighed down, fatigue, a sense of hopelessness or loss, and losing pleasure in things they once enjoyed. It can result in lower productivity, lost time and lack of satisfaction. Depression can affect relationships and even chronic health conditions.

Depression can even become a debilitating condition. 80% of adults with depression have reported a certain level of difficulty in their home, at work or social activities as result of their condition and symptoms. 30% of adults reported that their levels of difficulty in these activities were moderate to extreme. For some people, depression can get so serious that easy tasks, or simply getting out of bed, can become a difficult or seemingly impossible chore. (2)

Depression is a mental health condition that can affect your overall well-being, including your physical health. Untreated depression can last for months, years or a lifetime. It can seriously worsen over time. Seeking treatment can not only stop the progression of the condition but can result in improvements within a few weeks. As always, prevention, early detection and the right treatment is the key to recovery.

Types of Depression

According to the DSM-V, there are currently 9 distinct types of depression (3, 4, 5):

  • Major depression: Major depression is the most common type of depression. Many people with major depression experience recurrent episodes of depression throughout their lives.
  • Dysthymia: Dysthymia is characterized by a persistent low mood that lasts for a long period of time; for many months, a year or even more. Dysthymia feels like a chronic low mood that many describe as living on autopilot.
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) occurs due to lack of natural sunlight during winter months. This occurs among people who are sensitive to lower amounts of light and it is more prevalent in Northern states and countries.
  • Atypical depression: Atypical depression is characterized by heaviness in the limbs, irritability, relationship issues, oversleeping and overeating.
  • Bipolar depression: Bipolar depression is also known as Manic Depressive disorder and is characterized by alternating between depressive episode and mania.
  • Psychotic Depression: Psychotic depression episodes are characterized by depressive episodes with hallucinations, delusions, and being catatonic.
  • Postpartum depression: Postpartum depression occurs in new mothers after giving birth. It is characterized by a sense of disconnect and sometimes a fear of hurting their babies. Some mothers experience postpartum depression for several months after giving birth.
  • Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Premenstrual Dysphoric disorder occurs in the second half of the menstrual cycle, affecting the person’s ability to function normally.
  • Situational Depression: Situational depression is a form of depression that’s triggered by a life-changing, sometimes unexpected, event, such as death of a close family member or losing a job.

Symptoms of Depression

Symptoms of depression may differ person to person and the type of depression you are experiencing. Symptoms may include (6, 7):

  • Feeling sad or “empty”
  • Loss of interest in activities you once enjoyed
  • Changes in appetite and eating behaviors’ overeating or not wanting to eat at all
  • Weight changes
  • Sleep disturbances; lack of sleep or sleeping too much
  • Tiredness
  • Feelings of hopelessness, guilt, worthlessness, pessimism and helplessness
  • Lack of productivity
  • Irritability or restlessness
  • Social isolation and feelings of loneliness
  • Low self-esteem
  • Anxiety and nervousness
  • Lack of concentration and memory troubles
  • Pains, aches and physical health issues, including headaches, digestive issues, and cramps
  • Thoughts of suicide

Symptoms related to specific types of depression may include:

  • Peripartum onset
  • Seasonal patterns
  • Psychotic features
  • Mania
  • Catatonia

Depression can look different in different people (6):

  • Women: Women have higher rates of depression than men. Biological, hormonal and life-cycle factors are more likely to affect their experience. Women are more likely to experience sadness, worthlessness and guilt.
  • Men: Men with depression are more like to feel tired, irritable, and angry. They are more likely to have trouble sleeping and to lose interest in activities they formerly enjoyed. They are more likely to turn to drugs or alcohol and less likely to seek treatment.
  • Older adults: Older adults are most likely to have their symptoms overlooked, have less obvious symptoms and admit feelings of sadness, grief or loss. Their depression is more likely to be contributed to medical conditions, such as heart disease.
  • Younger children: Younger children may exhibit symptoms of depression by overly clinging to their parent, pretend to be sick, want to skip school and worry that their parent may die.
  • Older children and teenagers: Older children and teenagers with depression are more likely to be irritable, angry have troubles with school work or get into trouble at school. They are more likely to exhibit symptoms of anxiety, eating disorders and substance abuse along with depression.

Causes of Depression

There are many possible causes of depression. Causes of depression may include:

  • Early childhood trauma
  • Genetics, family history and brain structure
  • Stressful or life-changing events, including loss of a loved one, divorce, economic issues, moving, accidents, or birth of a child
  • Medical conditions, including chronic illness, chronic pain, insomnia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and anxiety
  • History of substance abuse and eating disorders
  • History of mental illness
  • Experiencing any form of violence or bullying
  • Certain medications, such as certain heart and blood pressure medications, hormones, tranquilizers,sedatives, and antibiotics

Diagnosing Depression

The DSM-V has a specific criteria for each form of depression. Only your mental health professional, such as psychiatrist, psychologist or psychotherapist can make a diagnosis of depression based on your symptoms and psychological evaluation. You may be asked a series of questions regarding your mood, appetite, sleep pattern, activity levels, thoughts, feelings and well-being. Being open and honest is the best way to receive the correct diagnosis; therefore the proper treatment.  In certain cases, your doctor may order blood work to understand if your depression is linked to your physical health, including possible thyroid problems or vitamin D deficiency. (6, 10)

Do not ever ignore any symptoms of depression. Even if you don’t meet the exact criteria of any form of depression, you may be exhibiting certain symptoms and may be at risk of developing depression. Without treatment, your symptoms of depression can get worse and lead to complications.

Complications of untreated depression (11):

  • Panic attacks
  • Anxiety
  • Physical pain
  • Weight gain or weight loss
  • Relationship problems
  • Social isolation and loneliness
  • Self-harm
  • Alcohol- and drug abuse
  • Eating disorders
  • Other mental health issues
  • Suicidal thoughts and suicide

Treatment for Depression

Traditional treatment methods of depression include therapy or medication or the combination of both. Alternative treatment methods, lifestyle, behavior and dietary changes may compliment these methods. Talk to your mental health care professional to see what options are right for you. Finding the right medication, therapist, alternative and lifestyle methods may take some trial and error, but it worth it in the end.

  • Medication: Depending on the type of depression and symptoms you are experiencing, your doctor may prescribe certain medications, including antidepressants, anti-anxiety or antipsychotic medications.(6)
  • Psychotherapy: Seeking help from a therapist can help you learn coping skills to deal with negative feelings, thoughts, and life events. It can help with behavior changes, improving your relationships, setting healthy boundaries, improving your self-esteem and more. Therapy can help you understand your reasons behind depression and help release trauma. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the most popular forms of therapies for depression, but there are other forms of therapy you may benefit from. Other options include dialectical-behavioral therapy (DBT), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IP), and other talk therapies. Along with individual therapy, you may benefit from group therapy. Art therapy, music therapy, and drama therapy may be options as well. (12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 35)
  • Light therapy: Exposure to doses of white light can help to improve your mood and to regulate your symptoms. It can be particularly effective for Seasonal Affective Disorder. (17)
  • Alternative therapies: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT), Somatic Experiencing and Somatic Emotional Release can be helpful in releasing trauma from the body and help with your related symptoms of depression. Acupuncture, craniosacral therapy, meditation, mindfulness, massage, Tai-Chi and yoga may also be helpful in creating calm and balance in your mind and body and reducing your depression symptoms. (17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 35)
  • Nutritional and lifestyle changes: Herbal supplements, including St. John’s Wort, SAMe, and fish or algae oil can be helpful. In case of a nutritional deficit certain supplements, including vitamin D, B12, and zinc can help reduce symptoms. Removing processed foods and refined sugar from your diet, and focusing on whole foods, such as greens, vegetables, fruits, beans, legumes, nuts and seeds can be particularly helpful in improving your depression. Avoiding alcohol and drugs can also be helpful. Regular exercise, sleep, and relaxation are also essential in improving your depression. Journaling, relaxation techniques, stress reduction, simplifying your life, joining a support group, avoiding isolation and time in nature can further help your recovery. (27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35)

Outlook for Depression

Depression differs from person to person. In some cases, it is temporary, for others, it is a lifelong challenge. While treatment may not make your depression disappear completely, it can certainly help you manage, reduce and even eliminate your symptoms. Seeking treatment, sticking with your recommended treatment plan, and making appropriate lifestyle changes is the best way to achieve the best results possible.

Preventing Depression

  • Seek professional help and treatment even at the earliest signs of depression.
  • Reach out to friends, family, and people you trust in difficult times.
  • Take steps to control your stress levels and practice relaxation techniques
  • Exercise regularly, 20-30 minutes 3-5 days a week.
  • Don’t isolate. Find your community and spend time with friends, family, and like-minded individuals.
  • Eliminate or lower your intake of refined sugar and processed foods. Eat plenty of greens, vegetables, fruits, legumes, beans, nuts and seeds.
  • Avoid drugs and drink alcohol moderately or don’t drink at all.
  • Get enough sleep, 7 – 8 hours a night minimum.
  • Spend time in nature. Meditate. Try yoga or Tai-Chi. Practice mindfulness, gratitude, forgiveness and positive thinking.
  • Find a way to express and understand your feelings, thoughts and experiences. Journaling, writing, art, music, singing, dance, exercise or simply talking to other people are great ways to do this.
  • Seek professional help, including therapy, coaching or alternative healing methods to prevent depression.
  • Commit to a long-term maintenance plant to prevent relapse of depression. (36, 37)

When to Seek Help from a Mental Health Professional

If you experience any sign of depression, go see your mental health professional or doctor.

If you are hesitant to seek help from a doctor or therapist, you may try the following:

  • Talk to a friend, family member, pastor or someone you trust
  • Talk to a life coach or alternative health practitioner
  • Call a hotline, including the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) at 1-800-662-HELP (1-800-662-4357), the National Youth Crisis Hotline at 1-800-448-4663, Suicide and Depression Hotline at 1-800-999-9999. You can also text the Crisis Text Line at 741741 or seek online support at 7 cups of Tea ( (38)

When to Seek Emergency Help

If you think you may hurt yourself, attempt suicide or already acted on a suicide attempt (or know someone who has), immediately call 911 or your local emergency number.

In case of suicidal thoughts, you may consider the following options:

  • Call your mental health professional or doctor.
  • Call a suicide hotline number. In the US the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline is 1-800-273-TALK (1-800-273-8255). For the Veteran Crisis Hotline, call the same number then press “1”.
  • Reach out to someone you trust, a family member, close friend, minister, or member of your community. (36)

If you are experiencing depression, there is nothing to be ashamed or afraid of; you are not alone. The earlier you seek help and receive a diagnosis, the sooner you can find the right treatment method and feel better. Claim you life back and seek treatment today.

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